What Is A Shotgun Microphone?
A shotgun microphone is a type of mic used primarily for sound reinforcement or recording in film, television, and radio. It usually takes the form of a long tube shape that looks like a shotgun.
Depending on the length, different frequencies are attenuated or emphasized, which provides a distinct directional quality and isolates the sound of the intended target like a human voice or instrument from unwanted ambient noise.
Shotgun microphones are designed for convenience and accuracy in a variety of environments and are commonly used in studio and on-location production. They are highly directional, picking up sounds primarily from where they're pointed. Some models may be even more directional than others based on their size. This makes them great for isolating dialogue from ambient sound. Shotgun microphones are great for environments with lots of sounds bouncing around, like sports venues or outdoor locations.
A well-placed shotgun mic will pick up sound from the source and reject the reverberant and distant sounds. This makes them suited for capturing vocal performances, speeches, and interviews since the mic will pick up mostly the talent and reject the background noise.
Pros of Shotgun Mics
Sound Quality – The primary advantage of using a shotgun microphone is that it can produce very good sound quality. Since the microphone is highly directional, it can capture sound from a particular source very accurately and clearly. The sound quality is usually much better than a non-directional microphone.
Low Noise – Since the microphone is designed to capture sound from a single direction, it can reject a lot of the background noise that would otherwise be picked up by other types of mics. This makes it an ideal choice for outdoor recordings, or any situation that requires the recording of clear sound without background noise.
High Versatility – A shotgun mic is very versatile and can be used for various types of sound recordings. It can be used for interviews, film production, location audio recordings, and many other types of applications.
Cons of Shotgun Mics
Difficulty of Use – Although the sound quality of a shotgun microphone is usually superior to other types of microphones, its design requires more skill to set up and use properly. Because of its highly directional design, its pickup pattern has to be adjusted carefully to capture the desired sound.
Difficult Setup – Miking with a shotgun mic also requires more time for setup than with most other mics. This is because the microphone has to be aimed carefully to capture the desired sound.
Cost – Shotgun mics are usually more expensive than other types of microphones. This is because their design is more complex and requires more specialized parts. However, the increased quality of sound that it can provide can often justify the higher cost.
How Does a Shotgun Microphone Work?
A shotgun microphone, as the name implies, is a highly directional microphone designed for capturing audio at a distance. It has a narrow “shotgun” pattern that allows it to pick up sound from the front while greatly reducing sound from the sides and rear. This makes it ideal for filming interviews, capturing sound effects, and collecting sound from a set or stage.
Rather than being completely enclosed like other microphones, a shotgun microphone is generally composed of three pieces: the capsule, the “interference tube”, and the base.
Tips for Using a Shotgun Microphone
To make sure you get the best sound from your shotgun microphone, here are a few tips to keep in mind:
1. Position the Microphone Correctly
The key to getting great sound with your shotgun mic is to position it correctly. Aim the microphone wherever you want the sound to come from and make sure to keep it parallel to the surface it's pointed at, such as the floor or a table. This will ensure that your shotgun mic picks up sound from the desired location.
2. Use a Windscreen
For outdoor shoots, a windscreen is a must-have. Not only will it protect your microphone from wind noise, but it will also help eliminate background noise. If you're recording in a studio, foam windscreens are also a great way to minimize room reverberations.
3. Pay Attention to the Sound Environment
Knowing the ins and outs of your sound environment can play a crucial role in getting an optimal signal for your recording. Make sure to pay attention to any potential noise sources, like fans, air conditioners, and passing cars, and take the necessary steps to minimize those noises as much as possible.
4. Use a Boom Stand
A boom stand is an incredibly useful tool that will help you keep your microphone in the right position. If you're recording outdoors, opt for one with a hard case for additional protection from wind and moisture.
5. Utilize a Shock Mount
When you're dealing with a shotgun mic, a shock mount is an essential tool to keep your recordings free of unwanted vibrations. There are a few different types of shock mounts available, so make sure to do your research before settling on one.
The Best Shotgun Microphones
One of the most popular categories of shotgun microphones is the lavalier, or “lapel” mic. These mics are small, compact, and often designed to clip onto a person’s clothing. This allows for unobtrusive and discreet sound capture, which can be handy for interviews or for use in stories involving loud sound environments. Lav mics are typically omnidirectional, meaning they will pick up sound from all directions.
Another common type of shotgun microphone is the “shotgun boom” mic. These mics resemble a boom pole and often feature a long “tail” which will capture sound from a wide area (in some cases wider than an omnidirectional mic). Shotgun booms are popular for recording sound in a loud environment, as they can reject sound from the sides and directly behind them. With this type of mic, you can capture sound from a wide area while minimizing noise from the sides and background.
For a more specialized type of microphone, there are “shotgun arrays.” These mics are typically comprised of several separate capsule elements, allowing for a very tightly focused pattern and sound separation. This type of microphone is often used in film and television sound to isolate and record multiple sound sources, such as dialog and background noise.